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问: 为何希腊神话与中国神话如此相似?
夜之流星
2018-07-30 05:29
希腊 希腊神话 神话 古希腊 历史 军事历史 古罗马
刚刚在网上看到有关希腊抄袭中国的文章特地问一下以下为复制内容:古希腊是西方历史的开源,持续了约650年(公元前800年 - 公元前146年)。公元前5、6世纪,特别是希波战争以后,经济生活高度繁荣,产生了希腊文化,对后世有深远的影响。这个时候古希腊的造船业与航海业已经相当成熟,已经有大量古希腊人通过航海登陆小亚细亚再经中亚陆路抵达中国,许多古希腊人借此学习了中国的文化、艺术、政治制度、科学技术特别是中国文化中…
回复 为何希腊神话与中国神话如此相似?
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因为远古人类不管在哪个大洲,面临的困境都差不多,大家都要和野兽,洪水和饥荒斗争,都要思考俺住的地方是不是宇宙中心,生命是哪来的,山河湖海是哪来的,神话里反映的大多就是这么些东西。同一个世界,同一类梦想

有兴趣的话可以读一读Joseph Campbell的书,他的hero's journey myth我觉得可以看做元神话,几乎可以拿来套用解释一半以上的好莱坞电影。

下面的内容来自维基百科词条,comparative mythology

Flood myth

Main article: Flood myth

Cultures around the world tell stories about a great flood.[16] In many cases, the flood leaves only one survivor or group of survivors. For example, both the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh and the Hebrew Bible tell of a global flood that wiped out humanity and of a man who saved the Earth's species by taking them aboard a boat.[17] Similar stories of a single flood survivor appear in Hindu mythology[18] as well as Greek, Norse mythology and Aztec mythology.[19]

The creative sacrifice

Many cultures have stories about divine figures whose death creates an essential part of reality.[20][21] These myths seem especially common among cultures that grow crops, particularly tubers.[22] One such myth from the Wemale people of Seram Island, Indonesia, tells of a miraculously-conceived girl named Hainuwele, whose murdered corpse sprouts into the people's staple food crops.[23] The Chinese myth of Pangu,[24] the Indian Vedic myth of Purusha,[25] and the Norse myth of Ymir all tell of a cosmic giant who is killed to create the world.[20]

The dying god

Main article: Life-death-rebirth deity

See also: Descent to the underworld and Jesus Christ and comparative mythology

Many myths feature a god who dies and often returns to life.[26] Such myths are particularly common in Near Eastern mythologies.[27] The anthropologist Sir James Frazer compared these "dying god" myths in his multi-volume work The Golden Bough. The Egyptian god Osiris and the Mesopotamian god Tammuz are examples of the "dying god", while the Greek myths of Adonis (though a mortal) has often been compared to Osiris and the myth of Dionysosalso features death and rebirth.[28] Some scholars have noted similarities between polytheistic stories of "dying gods" and the Christian story of Jesus of Nazareth.[29]

The structure of hero stories

See also: Monomyth and Hero

A number of scholars have suggested that hero stories from various cultures have the same underlying structure. Other scholars, including FitzRoy Somerset, 4th Baron Raglan and, more recently, Joseph Campbell, have also suggested that hero stories share a common structure.[30] Some comparative mythologists look for similarities only among hero stories within a specific geographical or ethnic range. For example, the Austrian scholar Johann Georg van Hahn tried to identify a common structure underlying "Aryan" hero stories.[31] Others, such as Campbell, propose theories about hero stories in general. According to Campbell's "monomyth" hypothesis, hero stories from around the world share a common plot structure.[32] Because of its extremely comparative nature, the monomyth hypothesis is currently out of favor with some religious scholars such as Lesley Northup.[5]

Axis mundi

Main article: Axis mundi

See also: Yggdrasil, Omphalos, and Mount Meru

Many mythologies mention a place that sits at the center of the world and acts as a point of contact between different levels of the universe.[33] This "axis mundi" is often marked by a sacred tree or other mythical object. For example, many myths describe a great tree or pillar joining heaven, earth, and the underworld.[34] Vedic India, ancient China, Mayans, Incas and the Germanic peoples all had myths featuring a "Cosmic Tree" whose branches reach heaven and whose roots reach hell.[35]

Titanomachy

See also: Titanomachy, Theomachy, and Theogony

Many cultures have a creation myth in which a group of younger, more civilized gods conquers and/or struggles against a group of older gods who represent the forces of chaos.

In Hindu mythology, the younger devas (gods) battle the older asuras (demons),[36] though both are born from the same father, Kashyap, the grandson of Brahma.[37]

In the Greek myth of the Titanomachy, the Olympian gods defeat the Titans, an older and more primitive divine race, and establish cosmic order.[36][38] Similarly, the Celtic gods of life and light struggle against the Fomorians, ancient gods of death and darkness.[36]

This myth of the gods conquering demons - and order conquering chaos - is especially common in Indo-European mythologies. Some scholars suggest that the myth reflects the ancient Indo-Europeans' conquest of native peoples during their expansion over Europe and India.[39][40]

The deus otiosus

See also: Deus otiosus, Sky father, and Urmonotheismus

Many cultures believe in a celestial supreme being who has cut off contact with humanity. Historian Mircea Eliade calls this supreme being a deus otiosus (an "idle god"),[41] although this term is also used more broadly, to refer to any god who doesn't interact regularly with humans. In many myths, the Supreme Being withdraws into the heavens after the creation of the world.[42] Baluba mythology features such a story, in which the supreme god withdraws from the earth, leaving man to search for him.[43] Similarly, the mythology of the Hereros tells of a sky god who has abandoned mankind to lesser divinities.[44] In the mythologies of highly complex cultures, the supreme being tends to disappear completely, replaced by a strongly polytheistic belief system.[45]

Founding myths

Main article: Founding myth

See also: National myth

Many cultures have myths describing the origin of their customs, rituals, and identity. In fact, ancient and traditional societies have often justified their customs by claiming that their gods or mythical heroes established those customs.[46][47] For example, according to the myths of the Australian Karadjeri, the mythical Bagadjimbiri brothers established all of the Karadjeri's customs, including the position in which they stand while urinating

2018-10-30 00:00:00
回复 为何希腊神话与中国神话如此相似?
回答数6
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太强行了。有些玩意儿属于各民族的共性。不过这玩意儿实在是让人觉得不值得花时间分析,我就吐槽一下好了。

中国雷公发洪水是说的伏羲女娲那个洪水神话吧(见闻一多《伏羲考》),怎么不说那里面伏羲女娲还坐葫芦躲避洪水呢?鄙视别人造方舟的时候就拿出大禹治水,现在想论证别人抄袭的时候就去翻苗族的传说?洪水神话全世界有数百种,都是抄袭你的不成?管下雨发洪水的不是雷雨神难道是火神不成?希腊洪水迫真世界末日。


有神山/圣山的民族多了去了。


拿泥土造人的也不止中国和希腊。


拿鲧强行对比普罗米修斯还行,怎么这次不鄙视人家偷了,再说要对比也是拿商伯盗火的神话才合适嘛。弗雷泽《火起源的神话》自己看不谢。


哪国神话没有英雄?


刚刚还拿奥林波斯山对昆仑山,这会儿可来五座神山对五岳了,不知道希腊神话五座神山是哪五座,脑子随便过了一下感觉应该不止五座,顺便好像中国神话倒是有五座神山的说法。


羿和赫拉克勒斯确实很像,但也不是这种对比法。叶舒宪《英雄与太阳:中国上古史诗原型重构》自己看不谢。


蚩尤迫真造反。


恕我不知道中国神话地府能辨善恶的是什么,谛听?


不清楚蚩尤沾河水和有弱点是哪来的,出自羊水?阿喀琉斯泡冥河水刀枪不入迫真希腊神话。


封神演义迫真神话。


宙斯赫拉迫真兄妹。


忘川Lethe迫真希腊神话,孟婆汤自己查什么年代才有的。

“奈何桥、孟婆汤”的传说是否来自于希腊神话?


中国神话的五个时代是什么?恕我无知。希腊神话分几个时代不是通行设定,而且佛教还有末法时代,阿兹特克人也有五个纪元的设定,怎么了?

2018-10-29 00:00:00
回复 为何希腊神话与中国神话如此相似?
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汉族神话中的鲧与大禹变成了三条腿的甲鱼,其他的民族神话中的大洪水元素有这个吗?

汉族神话中夺权,别的神话也有夺权,所以理由是这个,所以像?求告诉我什么民族神话 没这元素?

汉族神话有五个代表五色五方的帝神,希腊神话有吗?希腊神话有四象神吗?有十二八星神吗?

是个同样的元素自然就是像吗?

2018-10-29 00:00:00
回复 为何希腊神话与中国神话如此相似?
回答数10
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。。。。。。

所有的现代中国文章都是抄袭新华字典。

某类事物不仅会有共通的特征点,还有相同的基础点。

你这么问的话那不就是谁先出谁有理。

全世界神话都有创世神话,也几乎都有造人神话,很多造人神话都是神照着自己的样子捏人,都是抄的?

神话本身是用来解释一些无法解释又迫切需要解决省的浪费能量和脑细胞的终极人生哲学问题的。后来演变成统治工具或者其他事物。

它本身是用来解释问题并解决问题的,而不是追溯问题真正的原因。

也就是说,他是以果推因,为的是这个造出来的因刚好合这个结果。

用人话说就是再有正传的情况下写前传,他必须交代清楚正传中已经有的部分。

放到神话中就是必须解释“我们从哪来?”

“怎么只有我们?”(受限于交通条件和通讯条件,大部分古民族都觉得天上地下唯我独尊——我是说觉得自己居住在天地中央,只有自己。)

“我听说以前有场洪水,死了很多人,咋回事?”大家都基本住在河边,你说为啥?我也不知道,你读一读人类文明史吧。

那自然就有解释这些问题的神话,当然都大同小异。

2018-10-29 00:00:00
回复 为何希腊神话与中国神话如此相似?
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谢邀,牵强附会的。说当时有希腊人经海路来到中国,没有证据。

希腊神话中的创世说,和中国的盘古开天辟地是完全不同的。

还有希腊神话中的众神,是有严格的组织和等级制度,在中国原始的神话传说中这个是没有的。

2018-10-29 00:00:00
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